Private Electric Lines
There are two types of private electric lines:
- Private Aerial Lines (PAL); and
- Underground electric lines.
Both are generally located on private properties that connect to the electricity distribution network, at a point known as the point of supply (as defined in the Electricity Safety Act 1998 (the Act)).
Point of Supply
The point of supply is the changeover point from the electricity distribution network, to the electrical installation, where the property owner becomes responsible for the maintenance and repair of the electrical installation including the private electric lines on their property.
In relation to a PAL, the point of supply is generally where the electricity distribution network connects to the first pole on the property, or where the aerial / overhead line connects to distribution assets on the property.
Private Aerial Lines (PAL)
PAL are low voltage poles and wires (which can be bare or insulated), generally located on private properties which form part of the electrical installation (of the property) and carry the electricity supply from the electricity distribution network. These have been historically known as Private Overhead Electric Lines (POELs), and even referred to as Aerial Consumers Mains (ACM).Example: Private Aerial Line (PAL) on a rural, private road.
Hazardous Bushfire Risk Areas (HBRA)
There are regulations, aimed at ensuring all private electric lines installed are placed underground, minimising the risk that private electric lines cause ignition of fire in Hazardous Bushfire Risk Areas (HBRA).
The same regulations also establish requirements aimed at existing PAL’s as they reach the end of their service life and begin to fail, nominating specified thresholds in which PAL must be placed underground when they are located in HBRA. This is referred to a PAL requiring substantial reconstruction.
NOTE: Hazardous Bushfire Risk Areas (HBRA) are designated by the Country Fire Authority (CFA).
Electric Line Construction Areas (ELCA)
No PAL can be erected, or substantially reconstructed in an Electric Line Construction Area (ELCA).
They are not subject to the issue of a reference code for temporary restoration of supply.
Please contact ESV to find out if the PAL (including a PSL) is located in an ELCA.
Private Service Lines (PSL)
A PSL is a form of PAL with a single span of aerial line connected between the distribution company assets (e.g. pole transformer) and a building or structure (other than a private pole) located on private land.Example: Private Service Line (PSL) on a suburban or rural street. Arrow showing the single span of aerial line connecting the residence to a distribution business power pole.
Repairs and maintenance of PAL
As a result of the many sources of faults, property owners may require the maintenance and repair (or substantial reconstruction) of PAL in order to maintain or gain the reconnection of an electricity supply to their electrical installations.
The electricity distribution company will only reconnect power to a PAL once a Certificate of Electrical Safety (COES) is issued by a licensed electrician / Registered Electrical Contractor (REC).
These licensed and registered persons work must comply with the Act, and Electricity Safety (General) Regulations 2019 (Regulations).
Repairs to PAL in Low Bushfire Risk Areas (LBRA) are permitted, in accordance with the Act and Regulations.
Limited repairs to PAL in HBRA are permitted without a reference code from ESV, when the work does not require substantial reconstruction. A licensed electrician / REC may repair and reconstruct damaged portions of the PAL and arrange a reconnection to supply when the -
- Damaged pole(s) or span(s) to be replaced is less than 20% of the total number of poles or spans, or
- A repair relates to components of the pole or supporting the conductor (e.g. replacing a cross-arm, insulator or conductor spreader), and replacement of failed fused mains boxes, or circuit breakers installed to protect the aerial line.
When carrying out a repair and/or maintenance the electrician / REC must ensure the PAL complies with the construction requirements in the Regulations, whereby - .
- If the PAL is horizontally constructed with bare open wire conductors, it must have a conductor spreader fitted to each span of conductor in a manner that effectively prevents the conductors from clashing; and
- The PAL must be protected at its origin with an over-current protective device (other than a fuse link) that operates in all active conductors and can be operated from the ground.
NOTE: This is achieved by fitting a circuit breaker and supply protection assembly 4m from the ground, as required by the distribution company’s (VESI) Service and Installation Rules (SIR).
Under the Regulations, where a PAL is located in a HBRA, and it requires substantial reconstruction, the PAL must be placed underground.
Substantial reconstruction means—
(a) in the case of private aerial lines supported by means of a catenary, replacement or repair of more than 20% of the number of spans supported by a catenary or catenaries or replacement or repair of more than 20% of the number of poles for the catenary or catenaries supporting a cable;
(b) in the case of all other private aerial lines, replacement or repair of more than 20% of the number of spans or replacement or repair of more than 20% of the number of poles in that line supporting wiring;
Substantial reconstruction of a PSL
If a PSL to be repaired is located in an Electric Line Construction Area (ELCA), the PSL must be placed underground.
A PSL, in a HBRA may otherwise be replaced if the reconstructed line complies with the following requirements:
- The new line is comprised of Aerial Bundled Cable (ABC); and
- The new line is fitted with an overhead break-away device (often referred to as a or cut-away device or safety service disconnector) that is fitted at the point where the PSL is attached to the distribution company supply pole; and
NOTE: the overhead break-away device must be approved by ESV
- The line is protected at its origin with an over-current protective device (other than a fuse link) that operates in all active conductors and can be operated from the ground.
NOTE: This is achieved by fitting a circuit breaker and supply protection assembly 4m from the ground as required by the distribution company (VESI) Service and Installation Rules.
Alternatively, the PSL may be relocated underground.
Arrangements for access to, or work to be completed on or near Distribution Company assets must be sought through the relevant electricity distributor, and only undertaken with their written permission (permit), also complying with any conditions imposed.
Repairs and restoration of supply
As detailed above, the Regulations require that if a PAL in Hazardous Bushfire Risk Areas:
- Needs to be substantially reconstructed it must be placed underground
- May also permit a limited time emergency restoration (with reference code where the PAL must be relocated underground within 60 days)
- Is to have limited repairs (other than substantial reconstruction), it can be done without a reference code.
The following reflects the typical process.
Property occupier contacts an REC to have a licensed electrician assess what work needs to be done, determining if the PAL can be repaired, or if it meets the thresholds for substantial reconstruction (per the Regulations), whereby the PAL is required to be placed underground.
Learn more about finding an REC here.
Where the PAL is required to be substantially reconstructed (placed underground), the licensed electrician may relocate the PAL at that time, or carry out an emergency restoration (temporary repair)* when the owner (or their agent) makes a written undertaking that the owner will, within 60 days have the PAL placed underground.
* This written undertaking must be completed and signed, prior to the electrician undertaking the repair. The undertaking (FORM: Emergency restoration of a Private Aerial Line (PAL) in a Hazardous Bushfire Risk Area) is available at:
Where the PAL is required to be substantially reconstructed, the electrician contacts ESV on the emergency line (1800 000 922) to:
- Outline the arrangement of the PAL, and repair(s) required
- Provide the details of, or a digital photograph of the undertaking form (signed by the owner) – to the ESV Compliance Officer
- Obtain a reference code from Energy Safe Victoria for that work.
The electrician carries out the repairs, or substantial reconstruction of the PAL to comply with the Act and Regulations. The electrician / REC completes a Certificate of Electrical Safety (COES) for the work
NOTE: where the work is prescribed, the electrician / REC must complete a prescribed COES and ensure an inspection by a Licensed Electrical Inspector (LEI) in accordance with the Act and Regulations.
The electrician / REC contacts the electricity distribution company providing it with the reference code and COES for the work done, in order to have the electricity supply restored.
The distribution company attends the site and restores the electricity supply.
The electrician / REC provides ESV with a copy of the signed undertaking (noting the reference code provided) and the COES for the work done, within 5 business days of the work (per the details on the undertaking form).
Every year Victoria faces the risk of bushfires. Your electricity distribution company works closely with the CFA and the MFB to reduce the risk of bushfires in Victoria by undertaking an extensive inspection and vegetation clearance program each year. Part of these programs includes the inspection of PALs.
Legislation authorises electricity distribution companies to enter private property to inspect and maintain electric lines.
There are set intervals between inspections of PALs – normally no later than 37 months, or under some circumstances, not exceeding five years from the date of the previous inspection.
An inspection may reveal that defects exist and repairs, maintenance or substantial reconstruction is required on a PAL on your property. If this is the case, the electricity distribution business will provide you with written notice of the work required to be carried out (Defect Notice). Further re-inspections may then re-occur to check / verify that any defects have been addressed.
If an owner does not comply with requests from your distribution business to rectify the identified defects, the distribution company may escalate and refer the case to ESV.
Unsafe electrical installations may be disconnected from the electricity supply by the electricity distributor, or caused to be disconnected by ESV.
Trees, shrubs and vegetation near powerlines can present a risk of fire. They can also damage aerial cables which may increase the risk of electric shock within an electrical installation, and result in the electrical installation no longer being supplied electricity as intended.
Owners of PAL have responsibility to ensure trees on their private property are kept clear of powerlines. They are responsible for the cutting of any trees on their property that may interfere with their own electric service line or private electric line, or a private electric line on an adjoining property.
For safety reasons it is recommended that trees be cut before they grow to within 1m of an insulated electric service line and 2m of a bare wire electric service line
If the trees are closer than the clearances above, or if cutting may cause any branches to fall onto electric lines, do not cut them yourself but contact a trained and experienced expert in vegetation management.
Trees near other electric lines that cross your boundary or trees within your property near the electric lines in the street are the responsibility of the electricity distribution company.
Refer to ESVs guide on rights and responsibilities in powerlines and vegetation management:
The legislation associated with PALs defines the point of supply and confirms your responsibility for maintenance of your private electric lines, including the need to keep trees clear of these lines.
A private electric line is described in the Electricity Safety Act as
“any low voltage electric line used to take electricity from the point of supply, whether or not that line is vested in an electricity supplier”.
The Victorian Service and Installation Rules ) also provide information on the Victorian Electricity Distributors' rules for the construction and maintenance of private electric lines.
Subject to an application for exemption in accordance with regulation 701 of the Regulations, and an assessment by ESV, ESV may grant an exemption to permit a PAL remain overhead.
Information about exemptions and how to lodge them can be found here.
The Victorian Electricity Distributors have helpful brochures on their websites regarding Private Aerial Lines / Private Overhead Electric Lines, including illustrations of arrangements and the various points of supply, which may apply to your property:
If you are not sure about the arrangement on your property, or whether you have a PAL, you may contact your electricity distribution company.
From time to time, funding may be available for the undergrounding of PAL / POEL installations.
For further information please direct an enquiry to the Department of Energy, Environment and Climate Action (DEECA).
For more information
Contact us on 03 9203 9700 (business hours) and advise you have a query related to Private Aerial Lines (PAL) / Private Overhead Electric Lines (POEL).
Date: 30/03/2023 4:32
The currency and accuracy of this document cannot be guaranteed once printed or saved to a storage device. If in doubt, please check the ESV website for the current version.
Reviewed 30 January 2023